Sunday, May 24, 2020
CHINESE CRAM SCHOOLS Stress is something that everyone experiences. Pressure to excel at what you do, pressure to impress others, pressure to succeed in life: these are all stresses that we deal with on a daily basis. Our school-related stresses usually have to do with grades, our teachers, and our peers. But look halfway around the world, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find that our stresses seem miniscule compared to those of Chinese students. In an education system that bases admission to colleges off just one exam, it is no mystery why so many Chinese teens devote all their time to studying. The Gao Kao is the one test that determines the future of so many Chinese students. It is a 2-3 day long standardized test that is the climax of ChineseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And for some, a 7am to 11pm school day with only a few breaks (usually spent studying or eating), isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough. If they do not pass the Gao Kao and get accepted into university, their only option is manual labor. High schools students dedicate their entire lives to passing an immensely challenging exam. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s so upsetting to hear about what these teens go through. Students who attend the Cram Schools usually are lower/middle class, and their parents have to invest in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future by trying to pay for their tuition. This likely means working extra hours and living in tiny homes, in hope that their child will have a better life. The pressure put on Chinese students is almost unimaginable to us. AN EDUCATION WALK THROUGH Elementary school in China is quite similar to how it is in America. School generally begins at 8, and ends around 3, with a break for lunch where students in most areas can go home for. Some Chinese elementary schools ends at 5, which is a very long day for these young kids to have. They learn how to speak Chinese, math, geography, and a little bit of natural sciences. Study of the English language usually begins in 3rd grade. There are also some special classes, such as music, painting, and gym. With middle school comes the beginning of test-prep. Middle schools generally run from 8-5, then have a break for dinner, and students return from 7-9
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The French verb aller, which means to go, is used in many French idiomatic expressions. Learn how to go fishing, get to the bottom of things, go away and more with this list of expressions with aller. Theres a good reason why so many expressions use aller; its one of the most common and important verbs in the French language. There are a few basics to keep in mind with aller.Ã First, its an irregular verb, so it doesnt follow typical conjugation patterns. You just have to memorize its many forms. Second, the very common passÃ © composÃ © tense of aller uses the auxiliary verb Ã ªtre. (Je suis allÃ © meansÃ I went, I have gone). This means that the past participle in this instance, has to agree with the Je,Ã or the I thats speaking. So If a girl said that, the past participle would have an additional e at the end of the participle to indicate a feminine subject: Je suisÃ allÃ ©e.Ã Another important peculiarity of aller is its use in constructing the near future. Combine the present tense ofÃ aller the infinitive of an action verb to make the near future, orÃ le futur proche. The construction meansÃ to be going to or to be going to do something. Common French Expressing Using Aller French Expression English Translation aller Ã la pÃ ªche to go fishing aller Ã la rencontre de quelqu'un to go meet someone aller Ã pied to go on foot aller Ã quelqu'un to be becoming, to suit aller au-devant de quelqu'un to go meet someone aller au fond des choses to get to the bottom of things aller avec quelque chose to match; to go with something aller chercher to go get; to get; to fetch aller de pair avec to go hand in hand with aller en voiture to go by car aller sans dire; Ã §a va sans dire to go without saying; that goes without saying Allez-y! Go ahead! Allons donc! Come on then! Allons-y ! Let's go! Ãâ¡a va ? Comment allez-vous ? Comment vas-tu ? How are you? On y va ? Shall we go? On y va ! Let's go! s'en aller to go away
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(63) " will need to be made by a person wishing to start a business\." CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s business name, address and contact details Type of information (economic / other) Other Ã¢â¬â details ensure business exists and invoices can be posted to the correct address . Years customer has been in this business Other Ã¢â¬â establishes track record and history 3. Total assets and estimates of values of assets in the business Economic Ã¢â¬â establishes size of asset base of business 4. We will write a custom essay sample on Tutorial solutions or any similar topic only for you Order Now Total liabilities (total commitments) Economic Ã¢â¬â establishes how much the business currently owes others to assess the extent of claims against assets 5. Profits of the business for the most recent and previous periods Economic Ã¢â¬â used to assess whether the business generates sufficient profits to cover the payments that will have to be made of their account 6. Credit references Other Ã¢â¬â enables Ashley to follow up with other businesses the customer already has accounts with, to assess whether the customer has paid their accounts in time and in full 7. Details Of any collateral or security that can be provided should the customer default on their payments Economic and other Ã¢â¬â Ashley will want to ensure that the business will be able to recover any unpaid amounts by claiming from a third party or having a claim over the assets of the business Page 2 of 19 Exercise 1. 7 Factors in making a government decision Consult the relevant business journal or newspaper article and identify the acts of your case involving an important government decision. Identify the key government decision involved. Discuss the impact of the decision and its relevance to the press and community. Factors to be taken into account in arriving at a government decision include: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. The nature of the government decision. The government policy dictating the decision. The political impact of the decision. Identifying all parties affected by the government decision. Identifying all the stakeholders (I. E. Parties to which the decision will have a positive or negative impact). Identifying any particular lobby or special interest groups involved with the Issue. Identifying the available funding or resources available for the government decision. How is the government initiative to be funded? Identifying the cost of the initiative. Was the decision made in a consultative manner? Was there much political debate or commentary? Possible gains or losses anticipated to be experienced by the community. Possible alternatives which could have been employed by the government. Was the resultant decision considered to be the most efficient use of community resources? Page 3 of 19 Exercise 1. Economic decisions made by management Required: Provide examples of economic decisions that the following people would need to make with the use of accounting information: ; A manager in a sales department Of a shoe store ; A factory manager ; The manager of a state cricket team ; The manager of an animal shelter which relies on donations for funding Manager of a sales department: Decisions about number of staff required, and when the busy times are (for additional staffing); type and quantity of stock to purchase (based on historic sales figures), cost of inventory researched (for deciding on selling prices and specials / discounts / sales during the coming season); average length of time for which stock is held; stock on hand at any point in time (for purposes of re-ordering); latest fashion trends; information about the demographics of the customer base to enable appropriate stock to be held and appropriate prices to be set. Factory manager: Decisions about appropriate factory staff levels; appropriate plant and machinery capacity to run the factory; costs of raw materials, labor and overhead, such as electricity, in order to make decisions bout goods to be manufactured, production mix; costs of occupational health and safety to make decisions about the most cost effective way to achieve compliance. Manager of a state cricket team: Decisions about the selection and costs of players and coaching staff; appropriate playing and training Venues and their location to the centre of the city; sponsorship enticements and entitlements; purchase of appropriate sporting equipment for training and match days. Manager of an animal shelter: Decisions about the cost of collection systems to receive donations and the most appropriate method of obtaining nations; the cost of maintaining animals in the shelter such as food and veterinary costs; overheads such as electricity, insurance and premises; the costs of full-time employment in the shelter, and the management of volunteers. Page 4 of 19 Exercise 1. 10 The small business owner What types of economic decisions would a person wishing to start their own small business be required to make? How could an accountant assist in making these decisions? The following are examples of the types of economic (financial) and non-financial decisions a small business owner would have to make: A clear definition of the product or service that is to be provided (non- financial), and what the business will charge for these products or services (financial) Ã¢â¬â this will determine the projected or likely income ; How the business will be funded Ã¢â¬â will the owners put all the money in or will there be other owners or lenders (non-financial and financial)? ; How the business will market its product or service (non-financial), and how much it will cost to do this? Financial) ; Where the business will be located (non-financial), and what the rental cost will be (financial) How much staff will be required, what skills do they need to perform their jobs properly (non-financial), and how much will they be paid (this will have to be benchmark against other businesses in the same indus try or using staff with similar skills and experience) ; What equipment or other assets are required to start the business (non- financial), and how will these be acquired and at what cost (financial)? ; Will the business be registered for SST? ; What accounting and information systems are required for the business (non-financial and financial)? This should be adequate to provide information o the owners, and accurately capture transactions that take place, (including any SST components thereof) The above are just some examples of decisions that will need to be made by a person wishing to start a business. You read "Tutorial solutions" in category "Papers" There are many others, and it should be noted that many decisions have both a financial and non-financial component Ã¢â¬â it is therefore often difficult to make non-financial decisions without considering the financial implications and impacts of those decisions. Accountants can help small business owners With the selection of an appropriate accounting system, with regulatoryÃ¢â¬â¢ acquirement such as registering for SST, registering a business name, and applying for tax numbers and other tax obligations (such as PAYS) as required Ã¢â¬â this will depend on the size of the business and what staff will hired. They can also assist by providing the financial information and assisting in the drafting of a sound business plan that covers all the likely financial impacts of the decisions to be made. They can provide book-keeping and page 5 of 19 accounting services to maintain accurate financial records for the business and assist in preparing income tax returns, SST returns and other regulatory porting requirements. Accountants can also help a small business owner prepare a budget for the business, forecast cash flow requirements, and make decisions about which assets to purchase and how best to finance them. CHAPTER 2 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR DECISION MAKING DISCUSSION QUESTIONS SOLUTIONS 2. Define the terms, assets, liabilities, and equity. Are these terms related in anyway? If so, how? Assets are defined in the Framework as resources controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity. Liabilities are defined in the Framework as present obligations of an entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits. Liabilities require future payments from assets, generally in the form of cash, or the performance of services to cancel them. Equity is the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s claim to (or the residual interest in) the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities. The basic accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) indicates the relationship between assets, liabilities and equity. From the equation, the total assets of the entity equal the total claims against those sets by creditors and owners. CreditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ claims take precedence over ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ claims, and owners are seen as the ultimate risk-takers in the entity. Thus, equity is a residual claim on the assets of the entity after liabilities are fully paid, and the basic accounting model which expresses this idea clearly is: Assets Ã¢â¬â Liabilities = Equity 3. A local restaurant is noted for its fine food, as evidenced by the large number of customers. A customer was heard to remark that the secret of the restaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s success Was its fine chef. Would you regard the chef as an asset of the business? If so, would you include the chef on the balance sheet of the business and at what value? Suggested topics of discussion: Asset definition Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Assets are resources controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity. Ã¢â¬ Does the chef provide future economic benefits to the entity? Yes. Is the chef controlled by the entity? In Page 6 of 19 many cases, it is evident that he/she could not be controlled by the entity (e. G. He/she can resign when he/she likes, can take sick days). He/she cannot be Ã¢â¬Å"acquiredÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"soldÃ¢â¬ by the business, I. . They do not have rights to possess him/her. How would you value the chef as an asset? Usually you have some idea of the Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ of the asset, however, the restaurant would not know how long the chef would be working for them (this argument relates back to controlling the asset). 6. Discuss the significance of the following assumptions in the preparation of an entity financial statements: (a) entity assumption (b) accrual basis assumption (c) going concern assumption (d) period assumption (a) Entity Assumption If the transactions Of an entity are to be recorded, classified and summarized onto financial statements, the accountant must be able to identify clearly the boundaries of the entity being accounted for. Under the accounting entity assumption, the entity is considered a separate entity distinguishable from its owner and from all other entities. It is assumed that each entity controls its assets and incurs its liabilities. The records of assets, liabilities and business activities of the entity are kept completely separate from those of the owner of the entity as well as from those of other entities. The accounting entity assumption is important since it leads to the derivation of the accounting equation. ) The Accrual Basis Assumption Under the accrual bas is of accounting, the effects of transactions and events are recognized in accounting records when they occur, and not when the cash is received or paid. Hence, financial statements report not only on cash transactions but also on obligations to pay cash in the future and on resources that represent receivables of cash in future. It is argued in the Framework that accounting on an accrual basis provides significantly better information about the transactions and other events for the purpose of decision making by users of financial statements than does the cash basis. C) The Going Concern Assumption According to the Framework, financial statements are prepared on the assumption that the existing entity is expected to continue operating into the future. It is assumed that the assets of the entity will not be sold off and that the entity will continue its activities; hence, liquidation values (prices in a forced sale) of the entity assets are not generally reported in financial statements, as this assumes that an entity is to be wound up. When management plans the sale or liquidation of the entity, the going concern assumption is then set aside and the financial statements are prepared on he basis of estimated sales or liquidation values. The significance of the going concern assumption is in the valuation Page 7 of 19 placed on the assets of an entity in the mentis financial statements. The statements should identify clearly the basis upon which asset values are determined Ã¢â¬â going concern? Or liquidation? (d) The Period Assumption For financial reporting purposes, it is assumed that the total life of an entity can be divided into equal time intervals. Hence, the financial performance of the entity can be determined for a given time period, and the financial session of the entity can be determined on the last day of that reporting period. As a result of this assumption, profit determination involves a process of recognizing the income for a period and deducting the expenses incurred for that same period. Together, the period assumption and accrual basis assumption lead to the requirement for making balance day adjustments on the last day of the reporting period. These adjustments will be considered in a later chapter. How to cite Tutorial solutions, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Limitation Of Historical Cost Accounting. Answer: Introduction The learnings of the study intend to find the measurement with the concepts associated to the historical and fair value measurement of costs. The study has encompassed several aspects associated to the benefits of the historical and the fair value accounting system. The different types of the other facets of the study is abet to discuss the various concepts for the identification of PPE and intangibles. The learnings have identified whether the estimate practices for PPE and intangibles are consistent with the different types accounting standards followed in other countries. This aspect of the study is evaluated in terms of the selection of three companies based on New York Stock Exchange, USA, Australian Securities Exchange and London stock exchange. Measurement of concepts in relation to historical cost and fair value accounting The application of IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement is applicable to the IFRSs to permit the fair value measurement and the exposures which offers a single IFRS framework for measuring costs. The fair value consideration of the exit price notion considers fair value hierarchy which results in market based factors rather that the measurement of the specific entities. The original issue of IFRS 13 was done in May 2011 and is applicable to the annual period commencement or after 1st January 2013 (Bizfluent. 2018). There have been significant types of the differences which pertain to the assessment of the elements consisting of non-current assets as per various bookkeeping models used worldwide. In some of the historical cost accounting standards, asset revaluation is not permitted. For instance, US GAAP, PRC GAAP, German GAAP, JP GAAP and French GAAP do not allow revaluation of the assets. In addition to this, Spanish PGC does not reflect the revaluation model either, however the fixed assets may not be values in terms of historical cost method as there have been specific laws identified which voluntarily reflect on the updated values for the inflated assets (Learn Accounting: Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions. 2016). On the contrary country such as Australia contemplates with the revaluation model which in compliance to IFRS 13 and IASB model. This consider the models of both historical cost and fair value model. In terms of the evaluation of the IASB standards the fair value accounting considers valuation of non-financial fixed assets as per IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE). In addition to this, this includes IAS 40 Investment Property which refers to the non-current assets which are not held for manufacture, however it is anticipated to earn the rentals for capital appreciation with the consideration of leases. The importance of IAS 38, Intangible Assets is considered for the non-monetary assets which has no physical substance. The inclusion of IFRS 5 Non-current assets maintained for sale is evident with this ruling. The assets expected for sale is less than year and the same is considered for the accomplishment with a series of standards which are classified in this manner. Moreover , the treatment of these assets is not same as fixed assets (Faculty.chicagobooth.edu. 2018). Benefits and challenges of using historical cost and fair value accounting for PPE and intangibles The benefit of applying the historical cost on the balance sheet for the PPE recognition is considered with the cost incurred while of purchase along with the contracts, invoices, payments and transfer taxes. The historical evaluation of plant and equipment is also evaluated as per the amount of the depreciation and reporting of the same in the income statement. The accumulation of the depreciation amount is also shown with the deductions made from the assets historical cost which is depicted in the companys balance sheet. In case of historical cost, the considerations are made as per independent of asset depreciation in terms of the physical assets wear and tear in long term use of asset (Icaew.com. 2018). The main challenge of the historical cost on the balance sheet for the PPE and intangibles recognition is identified with non-consideration of the present values. Henceforth, the users of the financial statements who are willing to know the present values are at a difficulty. The main benefit of the implementation of IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment enumerates the bookkeeping treatment for general property, plant and equipment. The PPE is initially recognised with price subsequently measured with revaluation model and this allows for depreciable amount to be allocated on a systematic basis as per the useful life. Despite of the significant benefits, IAS 16 does not include the portion of the assets which is considered for amortization and needs to be maintained for the recognition of the financial statements pertaining to the mineral resources and biological assets (Iasplus.com. 2018). The IAS 38 Intangible Assets allows for the recognition of the intangible assets amortization over the period during which more economic benefits could be derived. However, the economic benefits derived from the intangible assets are uncertain (Ifrs.org. 2018). Identification of valuation practices for PPE and intangibles Identification of the valuation Practices as per historical cost Caltex Australia The main consolidation of the financial report is prepared as per the historical cost basis except for the financial instruments restrained at fair value. As per the financial statement of the company the property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. In a similar way the intangible assets are acquired as per recognition of fair value of the assets received and recorded on acquisition. The intangibles are amortised over the remainder of the agreement term. Identification of the valuation Practices as per fair value accounting Associated British Foods PLC The recognition of PPE in A.B. Foods is seen with the amendments which are based on the early adoption of IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 41 Agriculture. This acquisition process is considered with the remaining minority stakes. As per the assessments made in the annual report published in 2014, the non-current biological assets decreased from 266m to 251m. This is reduced as per consolidation in the net assets amounting to 45m comprised of which 17m was attributable to equity shareholders and 28m attributable to non-controlling interests. The assessment of the intangibles and goodwill is defined as per Business combinations and treated as per true and fair view override to compensate the significants necessity pertaining to the amortisation of goodwill as per Companies Act 2006. The intangibles other than goodwill is invoked as per cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment charges (Pdfs.semanticscholar.org. 2018). The property, plant and equipment are seen to be noted at cost as per fair value costing. The determination of depreciation is done as per straight line basis for buildings, leasehold for 2 to 40 years and for machinery and equipment for more than 2 to 15 years. The company is seen to perform annual impairment charged on the goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives. The events or charges included in the impairment is considered with the noteworthy changes in the commercial climate, operating results and planned investments. The changes or the events in the circumstances may trigger interim impairment which reviews the noteworthy changes in the operating environment, planned investment in the reporting units, divestitures as per the expected carrying value. The changes in the situations may trigger in-term impairment reviews included significant deviations business climate, operating reviews, planned investments and divestitures which may not be entirely considered as per the most conservative level of input along with the fair value measurement. A rationale for valuation practices for PPE and intangibles not reliable across the three companies The estimated practice for Associated British Foods PLC (Listed under FTSE 100) is following IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 41 Agriculture. It is also determined the assessment of the intangibles and goodwill is defined as per Business combinations and treated as per true and fair view override to overcome the significants requirement pertaining to the amortisation of goodwill as per Companies Act 2006. Nike (Under NYSE) considers the fair value costing. The assessment of depreciation is done as per straight line basis for buildings, leasehold for 2 to 40 years and for machinery and equipment for more than 2 to 15 years The consideration of the intangible assets is taken into account with indefinite lives. Henceforth, the valuation practice for the recognition of PPE is not consistent across three companies. On the other hand, the valuation practice for Caltex Australia (ASX 200) considers the valuation with the historical cost basis excluding the financial instruments measured at fair value (Home.kpmg.com. 2018). Estimation on the free choice between historical cost and fair value accounting for PPE and intangibles In my opinion historical cost accounting (HCA) suffers from various drawbacks. Particularly in economic environment where there is a constant increase in the prices as it is the case for most companies. In case of inflation, the value of money reduces and the monetary unit for the derivation of the standard amount does not have a constant shrinkage of the value. In addition to this, HCA overlooks the decline in money value and keeps adding the transactions assimilated at unlike dates and currencies based on fluctuating buying power. In addition to this, historical cost considerations may not match with the current revenues with the current costs of operations. In several occasions the revenues are measured in inflated currencies whereas the cost of production is seen with a mix of current and historical cost. The overstated profits may be harmful as per over-distribution of the dividends, settlement of the remuneration entitlements which the companies cannot afford. In most cases the historical cost concept does not consider the figures for the assets recorded in the financial statement at the time when they were acquired. Henceforth, they are seen to be doubtful to depict present day values as they cannot be summed up. The financial statement users will not be able to convincingly predict the future cash flows associated to those assets. The overstatement of the figures in many cases are seen to be taken into consideration based on the dependency on the measurement of the capital at different dates. In such a case the profit measurement may be reflected as outcome of comparing two pointless total of the capital figure which does not show the buying power of the shareholders. In addition to this the profit is usually measured by results for comparing the totals which do not reflect the figures of shareholders. The historic cost may have misleading implications on the capability of a firm to endure to function at a given level as the assets are undervalued. The inflation and the net attainable may be adjusted to maintain the stockholders' capital as per general or consumer buying power. The consideration of historic cost may mislead the impression on the financial trends of a company and the results may be restated by adjusted to the general price levels. Due to the aforementioned drawbacks the historical cost may be abandoned (HCA 2018). Conclusion The significant depictions made in the report has shown the pros of historical cost on the balance sheet for the PPE recognition is considered with the acquisition cost along with the contracts, invoices, payments and transfer taxes. The historical evaluation of plant and equipment is also evaluated as per the sum of the reduction and reporting of the same in the income statement. The disadvantage of historical cost on the balance sheet for the PPE and intangibles recognition is identified with non-consideration of the present values. The benefit of the implementation of IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment enumerates the accounting action for general property, plant and equipment. The PPE is initially recognised with cost subsequently measured with cost or revaluation model and this allows for depreciable amount to be allocated in a methodical basis as per the useful life. It needs to be further discerned that The IAS 38 Intangible Assets allows for the recognition of the intangible assets amortization over the period during which more economic benefits could be derived. However, the economic benefits derived from the intangible assets which are uncertain. Reference List (HCA), L. (2018).Limitation Of Historical Cost Accounting (HCA). [online] Accountlearning.blogspot.in. Available at: https://accountlearning.blogspot.in/2011/06/limitation-of-historical-cost.html [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Bizfluent. (2018).The Disadvantages of Historical Cost Accounting. [online] Available at: https://bizfluent.com/info-12022810-disadvantages-historical-cost-accounting.html [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Faculty.chicagobooth.edu. (2018). [online] Available at: https://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/valeri.nikolaev/pdf/fairvaluepaper_rast_conference.pdf [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Home.kpmg.com. (2018). [online] Available at: https://home.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2015/12/fair-value-qa-2015.pdf [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Iasplus.com. (2018).IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment. [online] Available at: https://www.iasplus.com/en-gb/standards/ias/ias16 [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Icaew.com. (2018).IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement | IFRS standards tracker | Financial Reporting | ICAEW. [online] Available at: https://www.icaew.com/technical/financial-reporting/ifrs/ifrs-standards/ifrs-13-fair-value-measurement [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Ifrs.org. (2018).IFRS. [online] Available at: https://www.ifrs.org/issued-standards/list-of-standards/ias-38-intangible-assets/ [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Learn Accounting: Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions. (2016).Historical Cost Accounting (HCA): Meaning, Benefits and Limitations. [online] Available at: https://www.accountingnotes.net/historical-cost-accounting/historical-cost-accounting-hca-meaning-benefits-and-limitations/5454 [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018]. Pdfs.semanticscholar.org. (2018). [online] Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d246/49949c7f82aa96d03578d930c76cb449ca8b.pdf [Accessed 25 Jan. 2018].
Sunday, March 29, 2020
According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, Essays - Medicine According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, there are 119,709 people waiting for a transplant in the United States, out of those, 8,030 people die every year while waiting to receive an organ (United Network for Organ Sharing, 2015). The increasing global demand of organs is currently considered a major problem by many governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). The main concerns behind the increasing demand of organs are the low number of donors and the creation of black market networks. Many governments have moved towards better regulation of organ donations, but these efforts have had little influence on the major global " organ heavens " , where individuals from richer areas are able to buy organs from third world countries (Jafar, 2009). This essay will look into the black market of kidneys while focusing on the exploitation of third world countries and the mechanism to counter these illegal markets. In many countries, the demand of trans plants is way higher than the supply and availability of organs. In the United States, only 1/4 of the people in need receive a transplant. There are two ways in which a person can receive a transplant. The first one, where the organs of an individual are donated after his/her death; the second case relies on the donation of organs by individuals while they are alive, the most common organ donated is the kidney (United Network for Organ Sharing, 2015). Yet, the amount of post-mortem organs donated is way less than the demand, leading to the creation of illegal organ markets supplied by living individuals. The global black market of organs is fueled by the practice of transplant tourism. This term refers to individuals who travel to less privileged countries in order to get a transplant; it also involves any aspect relating to the commercialization, sale and purchase of organs (Shimazono, 2007). According to a survey conducted by the WHO in 98 countries in 2004, 66,000 ki dneys were transplanted in that year, while 10% of those were transplanted to individuals from developed countries who travelled overseas in order to get their transplants (The Lancet, 2007). Although we should consider that those people travelling for a transplant are just aiming to save and expand their lives, the practice of transplant tourism is contributing to the exploitation of thousands of individuals from the poorest countries of the world. In many cases, the information received by governments and organization is just the tip of the iceberg. In many countries, the lack of accountability and transparency contributes to the continuous practice of undocumented organ trafficking (Budiani-Saberi Delmonico, 2008). This poses a problem not only for those trying to seek for a solution, but more importantly for those that are at the risk of being drawn into the market. Inequalities of social and economic conditions is one of most alarming aspects of organ trafficking. This is because, those in poor countries who are part from the lowest classes of the society risk their lives in order to hold onto the economic scraps of the pyramid of organ trafficking. In many countries like Pakistan, Peru, India, Philippines, and China, networks of organ trafficking take advantage of individuals by making them sell their kidneys. In many situations, these individuals risk their lives as they undergo poor surgical operations and receive no recovery treatment. It is quite regular that " donors " pay with their health the consequences of poor surgical methods years after selling their kidneys (Jafar, 2009). In most cases, these multimillion dollar networks pay an insignificant amount between 1,000 - 10,000 USD to the " donors " , while they generate hundreds of thousands of dollars in profit. According to the WHO, the cost of a kidney transplant overseas can range between 60,000 - 100,000 USD (Shimazono, 2007). The discrepancy betw een these numbers show the inequality in profit distribution between those who are in the suffering front (donors) and those who are part of the network. Throughout this practice, there is one clear pattern in the donor-recipient relations of kidneys ' black market. Ric Esther Bienstock, director of " Tales From The Organ Trade " , documentary filmed in the Philippines, talked to CNN in 2014 about
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Arguments about God Essays Arguments about God Essay Arguments about God Essay Essay Topic: Arguments In this RS coursework, I intend to write about the Christian arguments concerning god. In the first part I will describe some of the main arguments Christians put forward about their belief in God.In the second part I will explain some of the difficulties in trying to describe God, for example what gender should we use while describing him.The third part will contain a debate as to whether god exists, and if he does then whether or not we should be able to prove it. I will accomplish these tasks using different points of view, mine included.Part one: the main arguments Christians put forward about their belief in God.a) First beliefs picked up from the beliefs of parentsFirst beliefs are often taught to children from their parents, young children often assume everything their parents say is right, even if it contradicts reality, for example Father Christmas. Those who grew up in a Christian family are likely to have Christian beliefs, just as those brought up in a Hindu family are likely to have Hindu beliefs. This is because Children have no experience of the world and actuality itself; therefore they have no capability to question their parents. The beliefs of God, are often enforced through bedtime reading of the bible, or in the case of hell, told as a true horror story; purposely to scare children into believing. These beliefs, children simply accept until they get older, when they begin to question their parents and challenge them. Thus a childs belief as to whether or not God exists is influenced from the start of its life from its family and social experience.Questions about the existence of God in late childhood and when you are an adultThere are many questions human beings ask at some point in their life: the mysteries of the universe, mainly revolving around one thing, God. These questions have no specific answers and can be dwelled on for years before actually making sense, but there have been many arguments and beliefs peopl e of the past have thought and written about. Only a few of these questions are:Question 1 -How has anything come to exist rather than nothing?If in the beginning there was nothing, what was the reason for the universe to be created? For what reason did it go to all the bother of creating it/itself.The answers to this perplexing question are the arguments of St Thomas Aquinas; he was a 13th century philosopher who argued many of his beliefs. One of which was that God was the first uncaused cause. In other words; he believed in the non-believers argument of the big bang, (a huge explosion) but he sustained that something had to be behind the big bang; a will for the universe to exist; God. And thats why something came out of nothing, instead of remaining nothing.Question 2 -How has the cosmos come to be so well designed and some features purposeful?This question means how come the universe and everything in it is so well designed for its living environment? For example, evolution.Wil liam Paley imposed his idea. His example was a watch, if someone found a watch he wouldnt simply assume it had evolved, it had to have a maker the clock maker; but in the universes case, God.Similarly, the watches are often flawed; they will break eventually due to age. This is due to the flaws of the design and therefore its makers, in other words the thing that is made reflects its good and bad attributes to its maker. We can see in wildlife and ourselves how each is designed to fit its purpose magnificently. Hence their maker must also be magnificent. The answer to these questions is perfectly clear; the cosmos has come to be so well designed because of God. Simple creatures that cannot think for themselves are so perfectly adapted to their environment, they appear to be almost designed to be that way. They have no knowledge, they are constantly being guided by a higher entity, which has the spirit and thoughts they dont. If you look around outside, you would be able to see how well things seem to fit together, almost as though the world has been synchronized to the highest and most complex way.Being impossible for us humans to control creatures and scenery to this extent, we must look to a higher existence, God.However, a slight controversy to this would be, many creatures in todays world are under risk because theyre not well designed for the environment they live in. Among the animal kingdom, the cruel rule is survival of the fittest where some animals are blatantly less well designed than others are. This indicates that the universe is as a result of random chance, not clever design. And then it spirals back to the question of whether we have a malevolent or incompetent God. Then again, this point of view is flawed because if the animal kingdom were all balanced equally, none of the species would survive. This is because carnivores need to be able to catch their food, so they would have to be better than their prey wouldnt they? Besides the world cant be completely unbalanced in a bad way because then the food chain would spiral out of control.Question 3 -How did organic life come to be in the universe?How did everything natural still alive or extinct end up becoming a part of the universe.Everything in this world has a purpose. Without all the organic life on this world there would be no world, just a lifeless, insignificant piece of rock in the middle of a huge universe. Christians believe in the seven day theory where God created every organic life form within 7 days, (genesis) however these beliefs may not always be taken literally as there is significant evidence that the world must have taken millions of years to create. The world would appear to have started off full of bacteria and minerals and rocks, that is all.Then after an immense amount of time humans, plants and animals eventually were created. All this is absolutely extraordinary, because life requires a parent, or a life giver. Monkeys give birth to monkeys, zebra s give birth to zebras but who was there before there were any of these species? Who and how where they made? This is where the belief of the existence of God is important. Belief in God provides a clear explanation for a seemingly unclear event, for example, like how was the earth created? God was the original cause according to the bible, St Thomas Aquinas and many Christians today.Question 4 -How has intelligent thought emerged, enabling us to ask these questions?This uncertainty demonstrates that we are able to think freely, whereas other creatures cant and where did this originate from?The answer from Christians lies in the bible. It states in the second creation story that God gave us free will, because he didnt want little slaves following him round everywhere, doing exactly as he pleased, and not having a life for themselves. However, he didnt want us to disobey him either. He created us in his image, and he had a thinking mind, so he allowed us one too. Only to have us betr ay him. Consequently he banished us from the Garden of Eden.We ask these questions because we are a certain people, we dont like mysteries, they have to be solved. Some people spend their whole lives trying to figure out the worlds secrets and then it even passes on to their offspring. We are obsessed with logic. But logic has not solved all these questions for thousands of years!So what use is logic, we still dont actually know whether God exists, whether its the God from Christianity or Hinduism etc. But people believe it and so to them it is real. God is a simple way out of a difficult question like so many other things in todays life. For example aliens ghosts and the supernatural etc. In fact, belief in God can provide a simple explanation of things, events etcQuestion 6 -How is it we recognised awe and the numinous in a sunset, beauty and music, etc?How come we can acknowledge the supernatural in a sunset etc?The solution is that in fact not many of us often do realize the bea utiful and supernatural things in life, such as a sunset. However Christians often do as they appreciate everything in the world and to be Gods will and work. The world and solar system is all pretty amazing, many of us just never have enough time to simply think about all the marvellous things, that we take for granted everyday of our lives. For example the force that allows planets to orbit around the sun and never bump into each other, rotating the moon and the sun depending on night or day. The world is rather beautiful even in the simplest things. We sometimes recognize it and when we do, it gives us an understanding that there is something out there, making all this happen. This thing has so much power that it stuns us with awe at the thought of it, theres not a lot more powerful than humans so when something stronger strikes us its rather breathtaking to think about.Question 7 -How do we come to recognise the need for rules and morality?Why do we have rules and principles? Ho w did we comprehend it? We are a logical people who like order and clear explanations of events.The answer is there must be someone watching over us, an ethical lawgiver. Christians believe this is God and in the bible it explains the 10 commandments, which allow us to enter the kingdom of heaven when we die, but only if we follow them. There also always needs to be rules in society, or bad events will follow. Christians believe this is God testing us and these bad events are punishments. So as not to anger God again we inaugurate rules so it never happens again. This argument is called the moral argument.Question 8 -How is it we recognise the value of love e.g. from parents, friends etcWe often interrogate our understanding of love and how we can recognize it.The first love ever, to Christians was when God created humans he loved us dearly and still does. When Adam and Eve betrayed him and he banished them from the garden, he made clothes for them, to hide their nudity, which they where ashamed of. God was angry, but the clothes were symbols of his love for us. Nowadays, we recognize love as a feeling of affection towards someone. Whether theyre a friend, relation, lover or even an animal. Behind love there is an entity telling us that love is good and we feel warm inside when were around people we love. Christians believe this is a reward, and love is good.Personal experience of believers in GodSome people claim to have had a personal experience of God; sometimes such experiences can turn atheists into Christians or Christians into deeper Christians. A few examples of what a personal experience could be:* The feeling of wonder and peace, Christians get when they enter a holy building or somewhere significant to God.* Another experience is conversion this is where someone normally (not necessarily a Christian) gives her/his life to God and preaches about the Christian faith, whereas before he was just an ordinary guy.* An additional experience could be miracl es. Miracles are where something contradicts normality, with the only explanation of it being God. Like when someone is almost sure to die and then miraculously recover. Another type of miracle could be when Christians pray, and their prayers are answered. Miracles are powerful to believers in God as the cause and effect can be related in a short time period.* One more experience could be of actually seeing the God, and sensing his presence. This could happen in a near death experience, or from a flat liner brought back by the hospital staff. It could also happen through dreams or trances, these are called mystical experiencesThese experiences are often extremely hard to explain, almost as if the human language isnt enough to describe the extremity of the emotions involved. It also seems to be unique to each viewer so no one else understands. Often the onlooker describes the experience as a window to another, better world.Everyday experiences evoke ideas of GodWe experience God ever yday of our lives, whether or not we have enough time to even embrace the thought of how beautiful everything around us is. We can see Gods work in everything organic, we can smell it, touch it, hear it, and taste it. You can sense the supernatural when day changes into night and the moon and Sun swap. The sun doesnt set and rise of its own accord; the earth doesnt spin of its own accord. They are constantly upheld by God to never stop spinning and never bash into each other. There is always a day after a night and always a night after a day. Always birds singing harmoniously in the morning, do we not groan and wish some one would shoot them, shouldnt we take their song to be a compliment; exquisite life lives below our windowsill? And what about all the risks we take everyday, adults drive cars, children take buses, we cross roads, drink alcohol and there are so many other risks we take every single day. If you thought about it, doesnt it make you feel as if youre being watched ove r? Christians are thankful for those singing birds, thankful that their last cigarette didnt kill them, thankful to God for keeping their families safe for at least that one last day. Dont we take all this for granted?We thank God for our daily bread, For what we are about to receive may the Lord make us truly thankful.Crises in life, which provoke deep questions about GodIts all very well we appreciate the birds and the trees, but what about when a crises happens? Many Christians are forced to question their faith, question whether their whole lives worshipping God have been worthwhile or just completely time-consuming and pointless. A few examples of this are:* Illness* Death of family members or of loved ones* Divorce* Suffering* Depression* Rape* Struck by lightning* Car accidentsIf God looks after his believers how come he lets these bad things happen to us?Reinforced by millions of other similar believers of GodAs well as many other things that influence Christianity, Christia nity is the number 1 religion in the entire world, so there are absolutely millions of believers of God, Christians can connect with and be further influenced, to continue their religion and stand up for it until the bitter end. Christians regard their Christian friends as their family, their church as their second home. They share such friendly love for their family and true Christians go to church for fun, meetings and a little miracle that happens when they enter the church; a rush of love for God, and the friendship (fellowship) of man (people).Part two: Difficulties in trying to describe GodTraditional theological words associate unique features to GodIn Genesis it states that God created us in his own image, yet we cannot do half the things he can. For example there are many theological words associated with God, these are omniscient, which means he knows everything, what has happened to us, what will happen to us, who is important to us, what were thinking etc. However, it al so states in the bible that we have free will. If God knows whats going to happen to us, isnt that controlling us?Another word would be omnipotent, this means he can do everything but if he could do anything then he should be able to create a rock that he couldnt lift? This is logically contradictory, like so many other things that contradict each other in the bible.Another word would be omnipresent, this means he is present everywhere including every evil situation, but if this is so how can we trap a bit of God in a box?Another word for God and his apparent super-human attributes is Omni benevolent. But this is also flawed because if he was benevolent he would be incompetent; if he is competent he would be malevolent. This is because of all the suffering in the world, if hes so benevolent, why doesnt he stop it? Isnt he supposed to be omnipotent? If he is omnipotent then he must not want to stop it, which means hes not omni benevolent. What about the holocaust what are Gods reason s for not stopping it? However, it also states in the bible humans have free will, perhaps in the example of the holocaust, it was Hitlers will that the holocaust happened. So God didnt mess with Hitlers decision, until Hitler died that is. But this must have been very difficult for thousands of Jews to accept.Like humans but beyond human lifeGod is said to be like humans, but he is so much beyond human life that we simply cannot describe him in our human language. All we can say is he is completely beyond and utterly superior to the world, after all he did create it according to the bible. In fact, humans have so many different points of view of how God is, they all become entangled and confused. Brian Davies, a Philosopher of Religion in Philosophy of Religion, 2000 wrote:The word God has been understood in different ways. So you should not assume thatdiscussions as to what God is are always proceeding on a set of shared assumptionsGod is traditionally pictured as a man could he n ot be also seen as a woman? God also sometimes pictured as a ray of sunshine, or a personHuman words not enoughIn the bible, because of the language barrier of describing God, the writers can only use metaphors, symbols and analogies. A word symbol example famously used in the bible would be The Lord is my shepherd Psalm 23.1. Such stories made sense when most story telling was by word of mouth, with few people able to read. Also most people, until recent times, had little education or ability to read and write. So symbols are bigger than signs because they go beyond basic facts. However, symbols should not be interpreted factually or literally. That is why the bible is sometimes so misinterpreted, it is full of symbols, and often the reader takes those symbols literally or takes non-symbols as symbols.Since we only have the simple human languages, we cannot talk about an entity beyond humanity, so instead we use analogies for example God loves you where Gods love analogous with hum an love.Ontology: a description that leads to an argument for existence (part a)Anslem was the Arch Bishop of Canterbury in 1033 and he came up with the prospect of ontology. He based his argument on the prayer Proslogion, which uses this definition; The Ontological definition the language of perfect and full existence God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived Proslogion 1078.Anslem believed that with God there must always be existence, just as with a 3-sided triangle there must always be 3 angles. To be a triangle this is necessary, to be God this is necessary. God cannot not exist because he is the greatest possible conceivable entity. In other words, God is not the greatest conceivable entity that exists but is the greatest conceivable entity.The different between existing in reality and existing in imagination is that existing in reality is stronger. If the strongest entity ever existed in the imagination then an entity just like it would have to live in reality, therefore being better than the entity in the imagination, so the entity in the imagination couldnt be God, as God would have to be existing to be the greatest conceivable entity.God cant be made or destroyed because he is the perfection of everything, including existence. So Gods existence is unlimited, Gods non-existence is impossible. From this the concept of immortal also follows.Part 3: A debate as to whether God exists and if he did, whether or not we should be able to prove it.From arguments in part 1 summarise their strengths and weaknessesThe arguments about whether God really exists:1. The moral argument, we have so many laws in todays life there simply must be some kind of law giver at the start. If a random moral law just existed on its own, (which is actually impossible) there would be no moral foundation for people to believe in it. It may exist, but if there is no reason for it to then why should anyone follow it? Laws exist because someone wrote them, however the la ws are equal for everyone so the lawgiver must be absolutely good. Who is absolutely good? No one apart from God himself.2. The teleological argument, this is the argument of St Thomas Aquinas; He believed God was the first uncaused cause. The strengths of this argument are that as well as his own beliefs he accepts the scientific ones as well, e.g. the big bang. His argument also dates back from Plato and Aristotles unmoved mover, perhaps even before. This means the argument has a pretty solid origin. At first his first uncaused cause argument looks reasonably sturdy but do they actually prove God? We could argue against the first uncaused cause theory by questioning the fact that God is the first uncaused cause, why couldnt it simply be the universe or the big bang? In other words cant the universe of created itself instead of creating an entirely new entity? This surely makes more sense. And besides all this, what makes the first necessary cause God? It could quite easily be some thing else, in no way whatsoever must it be God or anything to do with Christianity or the bible.3. The cosmological argument, why there is something rather than nothing, why theres a universe, why did it go to all the bother. The best explanation is that we have an omnipotent God who created it. God created it and thats that. However, there are many objections to this argument. The first doubt is how this possibility matches the Principle of Sufficient Reason. This states that everything ever existing has a reason. However this is not clear, because if everything exists for a reason, and God is self-caused then we have a logical contradiction. However, this rule may not apply to God but only things existing in the universe, maybe it only applies to important things like the universe. I think its fair to say the universe does need an explanation, and the answer to that explanation is God.From language in part 2 is it possible for humans to give a conclusive answerDue to the limitati ons of the written word and language cannot give a conclusive answer nor deal fully with the possibility of God. Arguments in English probably can never be fully solved anyway because if one person actually figured out the answer to all the riddles and firmly knew it was true, either theyd never convince everyone else, or it would be too complex to actually put into words. Many of the spiritual, or religious experiences can be felt or experienced, but are really hard to think through and put down in words.So language is limited in its ability to give and explain a conclusive answer. Many new words were created (e.g. ontology, omnipotent) to try to describe feelings or spiritual things.Verification/FalsificationTrue Christians cannot easily be persuaded to change their viewpoints on their belief.John Hick the road, is a parable, and like all parables has narrow limitations. It only makes one point, which is in Christian life, they will always believe in God, and whatever happens the y will end up in either heaven or hell. The atheist protests however that this doesnt prove God exists. The road explains this point in a context of two people walking down a road, one a Christian one an atheist, the road resembled their life and they walked their journey in a separate frame of mind from each other, the atheist not understanding what will happen to him at the end of the road, the Christian knowing he will probably go to heaven, but perhaps hell.This parable explains to us that at some point during our life, we make a choice. Whether to be a Christian and follow the path God has laid out for them, or to be an atheist or a member of any other religion, unknowing what will happen. To be a Christian is to believe the bible, it would be almost impossible to convince him/her otherwise, but Christians simply believing in something, doesnt make the atheist believe it too.Basil Mitchells The Stranger is an allegory about a man and a stranger. The man meets the stranger once in intimacy and from then onwards completely trusts him and believes him to be right. No matter what people said against this stranger, the man kept believing. Though questions arouse about the strangers purpose, the man never questioned his friend. This story is like a Christians faith. From the first time they understand about God and love him, they never question their faith, no matter what anyone says. They believe it and no one can change that, the only way possible is if they think Gods betrayed them, but this rarely happens and often Christians return to their faith after theyve calmed down. This parable deeply shows the amount of passion Christians show for their religion. When theyre faced with a question they dont answer it, when something good happens they thank the lord, when something bad happens they believe God knows best.John Wisdoms The Garden is a very simple story with a great meaning behind it. The story basically consists of two people who walk into an untended garden, the first person sees the weeds the negative effects but the second person puts his belief forward and sees all the positive things about the garden, for example there could be a line of daffodils or something that would seem to suggest to him a hidden gardener had come and tended the garden. The moral of this story is that Christians believe everything happens for a reason, they look at life in a positive way because they know God is always watching over them, when something bad happens they take it as a warning.For example if a Christian was seated on a wooden chair, which had slowly been eaten away by termites for months, and finally the chair broke, while this Christian was sitting on it. The Christian would take it as a punishment from God for not clearing those termites, he would be positive about his fall and think of it as a sign from God that he should do something, whereas an atheist would simply curse and take falling off his chair as simple bad luck and possibly clear the termites. This is why you often see a lot of old ladies going back to Christianity, Christians way of life gives them hope if theyve lost their partners or something else terrible has happened to them.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Credit Crunch - Essay Example During a credit crunch, also known as a "liquidity crisis" or a "credit squeeze", the banks won't or can't lend. Investors can't or won't buy debts. Suddenly it's very difficult to borrow money. There is a lack of easy money. Consumers and businesses have less to spend. There could be serious ramifications for an economy. Even if the credit crunch is narrowly define as something that affects just banks, private equity and hedge funds, there is little out there to suggest that the British economy is out of the woods. Around the world, banks remain reluctant to lend to each other - or anyone else, for that matter, except blue-chip corporations or mortgage customers who can afford to furnish lenders with large up-front deposits. House prices are down 13 per cent year-on-year and rising; the boss of Countrywide, the country's biggest lender, says one in 11 borrowers are falling behind on their home loan payments; house repossessions were up 57 per cent in March compared to the previous year; consumer confidence has hit a 26-year low Almost 7,000 has been wiped off the value of the average British home since October 2007, after house prices dropped for a fifth consecutive month, according to latest survey figures. Britain's average house price fell by a further 0.6 per cent, or just over 1,000, in March, on the heels of a 0.5 per cent decline in February, the Nationwide Building Society's most recent snapshot of market conditions shows (The Times March 2008). Impacts on Interest Rates: in the past few weeks 10 mortgage lenders, including the Royal Bank of Scotland, Alliance & Leicester and the country's biggest building society, the Nationwide, have increased some of their rates, despite the Bank cutting rates from 5.75 per cent to 5.5 in December. Bank of England data shows that the average mortgage rate has been inflated. When interest rates were previously 5.5 per cent - in May last year - the average mortgage rate was 5.66 per cent but when rates moved back down to that level in December the average was 5.93. Credit CRUNCH IN the United States For more than half a century, Americans have proved staggeringly resourceful at finding new ways to spend money. But now the freewheeling days of credit and risk may have run their course in the United States - at least for a while and perhaps much longer - as a period of involuntary thrift unfolds in many households. With jobs shrinking, housing prices plummeting and debt levels swelling, the same nation that pioneered the no-money-down mortgage suddenly confronts an unfamiliar imperative: More Americans must live within their means. For the 34 million American households who took money out of their homes over the last four years by refinancing or borrowing against their equity - roughly one-third of the nation - the savings rate was running at a negative 13 percent in the middle of 2006, meaning they were borrowing heavily against their assets to finance their day-to-day lives Employment and credit crunch in UK Indications of the severity with which the credit crunch is likely to hit working people in Britain are contained in a number of recent reports and press articles. These focus, firstly, on the impact of credit becoming more difficult to obtain and, secondly, on the cost of mortgages. According to the National Institute of